The war’s momentum had clearly shifted to the South. Northerners were alarmed by the turnaround after having been so close to total victory just three months ago. Washington officials were scrambling to accommodate wounded Federal troops after the terrible defeat at Second Bull Run. The U.S. Army Surgeon General requested that women and children scrape lint for bandages.
1 Sep – A vicious fight in driving rain ended the Second Bull Run campaign with Major General John Pope’s Federal Army of Virginia still intact but thoroughly defeated by General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
2 Sep – President Abraham Lincoln reinstated Major General George B. McClellan as overall Federal commander in Virginia and Washington, merging Major General John Pope’s defeated Army of Virginia with McClellan’s Army of the Potomac.
3 Sep – The Confederate incursion into Kentucky continued, with Major General Edmund Kirby Smith’s forces taking Lexington and the state capital of Frankfort.
4 Sep – General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia began crossing the Potomac River into Maryland to take the war to the North for the first time.
7 Sep – Confederate General Robert E. Lee tried garnering support from the people of Maryland, while Major General George B. McClellan’s Federals tried tracking him down.
9 Sep – The Confederates resumed their advance as panic began spreading through southern Pennsylvania.
10 Sep – General Braxton Bragg’s Confederate Army of Mississippi entered Kentucky as thousands of men volunteered to stop the Confederates from crossing the Ohio River and invading the North.
11 Sep – President Abraham Lincoln approved a contract to deport slaves to Central America. He later hosted a delegation urging him to abolish slavery.
12 Sep – General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was divided into multiple sections as Federals entering Frederick discovered a document that threatened to destroy the Confederates.
14 Sep – Three Confederate forces converged on the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry, at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers.
14 Sep – A portion of General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia defended key mountain passes in Maryland against Major General George B. McClellan’s Federal Army of the Potomac.
15 Sep – As part of General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia fought at South Mountain, another portion led by Major General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson forced the largest Federal surrender of the war.
16 Sep – General Robert E. Lee concentrated his Confederate Army of Northern Virginia near Sharpsburg as Major General George B. McClellan’s Federal Army of the Potomac approached.
17 Sep – The bloodiest day in American history occurred as the armies of Robert E. Lee and George B. McClellan fought to a standoff near Sharpsburg, Maryland, along Antietam Creek.
17 Sep – General Braxton Bragg’s Army of Mississippi captured a Federal garrison in Kentucky after a unique gesture of chivalry.
18 Sep – General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia defiantly awaited another attack from Major General George B. McClellan’s Federal Army of the Potomac after the Battle of Antietam.
18 Sep – With Confederate forces moving into Maryland and Kentucky, the third prong of the overall Confederate offensive began moving in Mississippi.
19 Sep – Federal forces attacked Confederates in northern Mississippi but could not prevent them from escaping to join with another force.
22 Sep – President Abraham Lincoln issued his decree stating “that all persons held as slaves” within rebellions areas “are, and henceforward shall be free” if those areas did not submit to Federal law by January 1.
23 Sep – Federal forces effectively suppressed the Sioux uprising of 1862 over mistreatment on reservations and drove much of the tribe out of Minnesota.
24 Sep – After issuing an order freeing all slaves in the Confederate states, President Abraham Lincoln issued a second order curtailing freedoms in the northern states.
25 Sep – Major General Don Carlos Buell’s Federal Army of the Ohio secured Louisville, but the Lincoln administration received several reports critical of Buell’s leadership.
27 Sep – Major General George B. McClellan sought more approval from Washington, while President Abraham Lincoln addressed reports of disloyalty within the army.
29 Sep – Major General William “Bull” Nelson was shot to death by Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis over a trivial argument.
30 Sep – Confederates tried reentering southwestern Missouri from Arkansas, resulting in a fierce skirmish.
Last Updated: 9/30/2017
Tagged: Abraham Lincoln, Antietam Creek, Army of Mississippi, Army of Northern Virginia, Army of the Ohio, Army of the Potomac, Braxton Bragg, Civil Liberties, Colonization, Dakota War, Don Carlos Buell, Edmund Kirby Smith, Emancipation, Emancipation Proclamation, George B. McClellan, Habeas Corpus, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson C. Davis, John Pope, Kentucky Campaign, Maryland Campaign, Robert E. Lee, Sharpsburg, Slavery, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, William Nelson