July 1863

Robert E. Lee’s Confederates were in Pennsylvania and the Federals had a new commander, both of which alarmed northerners. In Tennessee, William Rosecrans’s Federals were outmaneuvering Braxton Bragg’s Confederates and threatening Chattanooga. Ulysses S. Grant’s Federal siege of Vicksburg was growing stronger, and southerners were losing hope that the city could be saved.

This was a disastrous month for the Confederacy, which sustained decisive defeats at two key points that permanently turned the tide of the war. The largest battle ever fought in North America took place, and relentless Federal operations continued in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Charleston Harbor. Meanwhile, the North was torn by dissent over the new military draft.

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Last Updated: 4/9/2017

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