Fort Donelson: Federal Attacks Fail

February 13, 1862 – Federal forces attacked Fort Donelson, but they found the defenses much stronger than those of Fort Henry.

By the morning of February 13, Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant’s Federal troops had been positioned in a semicircle around Fort Donelson’s outer defenses, from the west to the south. North of the fort remained open, and the Cumberland River flowed to the fort’s east.

General Albert Sidney Johnston, commanding Confederate Department No. 2 (i.e., the Western Theater), ordered Brigadier General John B. Floyd to hurry his remaining brigade from Bowling Green, Kentucky, to Fort Donelson. Floyd arrived at dawn on the 13th and became the ranking officer over Brigadier Generals Gideon Pillow and Simon B. Buckner already there. The addition of Floyd’s brigade brought the total number of Confederate defenders to about 15,000, or a size about equal to Grant’s. Floyd telegraphed Johnston: “Our field defenses are good. I think we can sustain ourselves against the land forces.”

At Grant’s request, the Federal gunboat U.S.S. Carondelet began firing on Fort Donelson to create a diversion from the impending land attack. The Carondelet fired 139 rounds into the fort; Floyd reported, “After two hours’ cannonade the enemy hauled off their gunboats; will commence probably again.” When the gunboat attack resumed, Floyd suddenly wired, “The fort cannot hold out twenty minutes.”

Despite Grant’s order not to provoke a general engagement until the remaining gunboats arrived, both his division commanders, Brigadier Generals Charles F. Smith and John A. McClernand, sent troops forward. Smith’s men assailed the Confederate right but fell back after a sharp fight. McClernand sent three regiments against a battery in the Confederate center, but they were repelled with heavy losses.

Federal attack on Fort Donelson | Image Credit: CivilWarDailyGazette.com

Federal attack on Fort Donelson | Image Credit: CivilWarDailyGazette.com

These clashes indicated that the Confederates intended to hold firm, despite Floyd’s worry that they might collapse. Grant downplayed the setbacks in a message to his superior, Major General Henry W. Halleck. Referring to them as “skirmishing all day,” Grant reported, “I feel every confidence of success, and the best feeling prevails among the men.”

On the Confederate side, Buckner reported that “the fire of the enemy’s artillery and riflemen was incessant throughout the day; but was responded to by a well-directed fire from the intrenchments, which inflicted upon the assailant a considerable loss, and almost silenced his fire late in the afternoon.”

Rain began falling that afternoon, and the fighting died down by nightfall. Around that time, northern winds blew in a cold front that turned the rain to ice and dropped temperatures to 10 degrees. The Federals had no tents for shelter, and Confederate sharpshooters prevented them from building fires. Men who had discarded their blankets and heavy coats on the balmy march from Fort Henry now struggled to survive in the bitter cold.

Both sides exchanged artillery fire intermittently through the night as Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote arrived with five more gunboats from his Federal squadron: the ironclads U.S.S. St. Louis, Louisville, and Pittsburgh; and the timber-clads U.S.S. Tyler and Conestoga. Foote also brought army reinforcements that took up positions on the open (northern) end of Grant’s semicircle around Fort Donelson.

From his St. Louis headquarters, Halleck again requested help from Brigadier General Don Carlos Buell, commanding the Department of the Ohio east of Fort Donelson. Halleck urged Buell to feint against Bowling Green to prevent Confederates at Columbus, Kentucky, from moving to reinforce the fort. Once again, Buell demurred, further demonstrating the two commanders’ inability to coordinate their efforts.

Early on the 14th, Grant rode out to observe the Federal reinforcements debarking from the river transports. He also met with Foote to discuss launching a gunboat attack on the fort. Foote initially resisted because Donelson, situated atop a high bluff, would be much harder to bombard than Fort Henry. However, Grant convinced him to try.

Foote finally arranged his gunboats into battle order around 3 p.m. The front line (west to east) consisted of the Louisville, Foote’s flagship St. Louis, Pittsburgh, and Carondelet. Foote intended to repeat the tactics that had won Fort Henry by placing the more formidable ironclads in front and keeping the wooden vessels back.

Confederate artillerists atop the commanding 150-foot-high bluff watched the vessels advance to within 1,000 yards and then opened fire. The flotilla managed to get within 400 yards of the fort, but being at such a close distance caused Federal gunners to overshoot their targets. Meanwhile, the Confederates poured a devastating fire almost directly down upon the boat decks and pilothouses. A private in the 49th Tennessee watched the battle and wrote:

“The gunboats with full Determination to take our Battrey by Storme… pressed up the river stidley firing on us. The Bum shells were bursting in the air threatening sudden death and distrucktion. Stil tha came on… within Three Hundred yards of the Batterrys and tha turned loosed their guns with grap shot to run our gunners away from thear Guns but tha finding our men to hard and brave for them, tha concluded to givit up and tha turned down the River while the Iron and Wood was flying from them upin the air tha sneaked down behind the bend badely tore to peasis.”

One Confederate shot that hit the St. Louis killed the pilot, wounded Foote, destroyed the ship’s steering mechanism, and sent her drifting downriver. Another shot destroyed the Pittsburgh’s tiller ropes, putting her out of action. The Louisville sustained so much damage that she also drifted out of the fight. Floyd telegraphed Johnston: “The fort holds out. Three gunboats have retired. Only one firing now.” That one, the Carondelet, finally withdrew under heavy fire, also badly damaged. The timber-clads could not get within range of the well-placed Confederate guns atop the bluff.

Foote finally ordered a general withdrawal and then relinquished command due to his injuries. The St. Louis and Louisville were put out of action indefinitely, and each ironclad took at least 40 hits. The Federals lost 11 men killed and 43 wounded; the Confederates lost nobody.

With the loss of the two strongest gunboats in the fleet, Grant wrote to Halleck’s chief of staff at Cairo, Illinois: “Appearances indicate now that we will have a protracted siege here… fear the result of an attempt to carry the place by storm with raw troops. I feel great confidence… in ultimately reducing the place.” But Grant privately confided to his wife that this “bids fair to be a long job.”

Floyd held a council of war with his division and brigade commanders that evening. The Confederates had been successful thus far, but the Federals now had 25,000 men surrounding Fort Donelson from the north, west, and south. Moreover, Federal gunboats still commanded the river to the east, making the arrival of Confederate reinforcements and supplies nearly impossible.

Acknowledging that the Federals would ultimately overpower them, the commanders agreed to abandon the fort. They planned to try breaking through the Federal line on the right, or southern, flank, which would open the road to sanctuary at Nashville. Some, like Buckner, went along with the breakout plan but doubted its chances for success.

Ice storms and brutal winds continued that evening, partially masking Pillow’s Confederates as they shifted southward. They would advance at 5 a.m., with Pillow’s men attempting to break through while Buckner held the Federals north of the fort. Buckner’s force would then become the rear guard and follow Pillow south. The commanders did not have a unified plan of action in case their breakout actually succeeded.

—–

References

Angle, Paul M., A Pictorial History of the Civil War Years (New York: Doubleday, 1967), p. 70-71; CivilWarDailyGazette.com (multiple dates); Davis, Jefferson, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government: All Volumes (Heraklion Press, Kindle Edition 2013, 1889), Loc 12554-64; Delaney, Norman C., Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (New York: Harper & Row, 1986, Patricia L. Faust ed.), p. 272-73, 280-81; Denney, Robert E., The Civil War Years: A Day-by-Day Chronicle (New York: Gramercy Books, 1992 [1998 edition]), p. 127-28; Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fort Sumter to Perryville (New York: Vintage Books, 1958), p. 194-95, 199-200, 204-06; Fredriksen, John C., Civil War Almanac (New York: Checkmark Books, 2007), p. 109-10; Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant (New York: Da Capo Press, 1982 [original 1885, republication of 1952 edition]), p. 153-55; Long, E.B. with Long, Barbara, The Civil War Day by Day (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1971), p. 170-71; McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States Book 6, Oxford University Press, Kindle Edition, 1988), p. 399-400; McPherson, James M., War on the Waters: The Union and Confederate Navies, 1861-1865 (Littlefield History of the Civil War Era, The University of North Carolina Press, Kindle Edition, 2012), p. 77; Nevin, David, The Road to Shiloh: Early Battles in the West (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983), p. 81-84; Pollard, Edward A., Southern History of the War (New York: The Fairfax Press, 1990), p. 246-47

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