M30-APRIL 1863

Southerners clamored for relief from economic hardship. Anti-war sentiment gained popularity in the North. Federals attacked Charleston, and Ulysses S. Grant continued threatening Vicksburg, one of the last Confederate strongholds on the Mississippi River. Joseph Hooker prepared his Federal army along the Rappahannock River to confront Lee’s Confederates once more.

Running the Vicksburg batteries | Image Credit: figures.boundless.com

Vicksburg: Grant Changes Strategy

1 Apr – Major General Ulysses S. Grant finally conceded the impossibility of capturing Vicksburg from the north and began devising another, more daring, plan.

The Richmond Bread Riot

2 Apr – A mob of mostly women stormed the business district of the Confederate capital demanding relief from the epidemic of shortages plaguing the Confederacy.

The Siege of Washington

3 Apr – Confederates within Major General D.H. Hill’s military department tried destroying a Federal garrison on the North Carolina coast.

The Army of the Potomac: The Grand Review

4 Apr – President Abraham Lincoln headed a group leaving Washington to review Major General Joseph Hooker’s revamped Army of the Potomac.

Federals Invade Charleston Harbor

7 Apr – Federal ironclads launched a doomed attack on the Confederate forts guarding Charleston Harbor.

Hardships on the Confederate Home Front

10 Apr – Southerners endured greater hardships than ever before this year, especially west of the Mississippi River. This led to growing unrest and widespread discontent.

The Siege of Suffolk

11 Apr – Confederate forces under Lieutenant General James Longstreet attacked the Federal garrison at Suffolk, Virginia, south of the James River.

Northern Virginia: Hooker’s Grand Plan

13 Apr – Major General George Stoneman’s new Federal Cavalry Corps left Falmouth to cut the Confederate supply lines preparatory to a main attack on General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.

Dissension on the Northern Home Front

13 Apr – Calls for peace grew louder in the North, especially among Democrats known as “Copperheads.” The military responded with draconian orders against civilian protest.

Port Hudson: Ancillary Operations

14 Apr – Major General Nathaniel P. Banks avoided attacking the Confederate garrison at Port Hudson by instead targeting objectives in western Louisiana.

Vicksburg: Grant and Porter Assemble

15 Apr – Major General Ulysses S. Grant assembled his Federal troops at Milliken’s Bend as Rear Admiral David D. Porter prepared to pass the Vicksburg batteries with his Mississippi River Squadron.

Vicksburg: Porter Runs the Batteries

16 Apr – Rear Admiral David D. Porter successfully passed the Confederate batteries guarding Vicksburg. This marked a successful start to Major General Ulysses S. Grant’s plan to capture Vicksburg from below.

Vicksburg: Grierson’s Raid

17 Apr – Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson set out with 1,700 Federal cavalrymen to divert Confederate attention from Major General Ulysses S. Grant’s landing below Vicksburg.

Northern Virginia: Hooker’s Alternate Plan

19 Apr – President Abraham Lincoln, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, and General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck met with Major General Joseph Hooker to discuss a new plan of attack against General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.

Vicksburg: Transports Run the Batteries

22 Apr – A fleet of transports and supply vessels tried to duplicate Rear Admiral David D. Porter’s feat of passing the Confederate batteries at Vicksburg and joining the Federal forces downriver.

Northern Virginia: The Campaign Begins

26 Apr – Major General Joseph Hooker issued marching orders for the Army of the Potomac to begin a new campaign against General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia at Fredericksburg.

Vicksburg: Grant’s First Phase

27 Apr – Federal troops arrived at Hard Times on the west bank of the Mississippi River. This signaled the successful completion of the first phase of Major General Ulysses S. Grant’s plan to capture Vicksburg.

Vicksburg: Grant Needs Another Crossing

29 Apr – Major General Ulysses S. Grant needed to find another place to cross the Mississippi River after Confederate defenses at Grand Gulf proved too strong to overcome.


Last Updated: 9/30/2018