Federal forces win a small engagement in western Virginia and gain control of Missouri, but Confederate forces win in eastern Virginia. Another southern state officially joins the Confederacy, and a large-scale Federal invasion of Virginia is imminent.
The first land battle of the war takes place in northern Virginia, and Confederates blockade the Potomac waterway into Chesapeake Bay.
Federal forces win a minor victory in western Virginia and secure the railroad line between Washington and the West.
A conference between Federal officers and Missouri state officials leads to open warfare between the Federals and Missourians.
Prominent U.S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas, a Democrat who supports the Lincoln administration’s war effort, dies at 48.
Tennessee voters approve secession from the Union, but eastern Tennessee remains defiantly Unionist.
The Lincoln administration approves centralizing efforts to aid volunteer soldiers into a unified U.S. Sanitary Commission.
The Confederacy wins the first land battle on Virginia’s Peninsula and stops a Federal drive toward Yorktown and Richmond.
Texas announces a state of war with the U.S., Federals in New Mexico brace for a Confederate invasion, and Confederates in Arkansas are authorized to aid the Missouri State Guard.
Confederates abandon Harpers Ferry in northwestern Virginia as Federals cautiously prepare to enter that part of the state.
Federals led by Charles P. Stone seize two key ferries on the Potomac River while Confederates begin stirring at Leesburg, Va.
Federal forces advance in northern Missouri and win a minor victory at Boonville. But the secessionists are not done fighting yet.
Western Virginians gather at a convention and declare themselves to be the lawful, reorganized government of the state of Virginia.
George B. McClellan comes to take personal command of Federals in western Virginia as Confederates try to strengthen their defenses.
Pro-Confederate Kentuckians boycott an election that results in Unionist candidates winning seats in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Confederate and U.S. officials work to develop strategies to wage war against each other on the waters.
Professor Thaddeus Lowe ascends in a balloon to demonstrate the usefulness of aerial military reconnaissance, and J.D. Mills demonstrates a forerunner to the modern machine gun.
Various detachments of Federal and Confederate forces maneuver toward a confrontation in Unionist western Virginia.
President Lincoln holds a special cabinet meeting to decide on a plan for immediate offensive operations in northern Virginia.
The Confederate cruiser Sumter runs the Federal blockade and begins her career as a commerce raider.
Last Updated: 7/7/2021