June 1863

Residents of Vicksburg continued enduring the hardships of siege warfare. A notable northern newspaper was suppressed by the military, and West Virginia was granted statehood after seceding from Virginia. Both Federal and Confederate governments urged the armies in central Tennessee to move. As Lee’s Confederates moved north, a major Federal command change took place just before the war’s greatest battle.

The Federal Grip Tightens Around Vicksburg

Ulysses S. Grant’s Federals strengthen their grip around the Confederates in Vicksburg by the day, while the tedium of the siege leads to one of the biggest scandals of the war.

Lee Begins Moving North

Robert E. Lee directs his Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to begin its second invasion of the North.

The Chicago Times Suppression

Ambrose E. Burnside follows up his arrest of Clement Vallandigham by ordering the closure of the anti-war Chicago Times.

Hooker Tries Learning Lee’s Intentions

Joseph Hooker struggles to learn Robert E. Lee’s true intentions as the Confederates move around the Federal right in northern Virginia.

The Milliken’s Bend Engagement

Confederates try lifting the siege of Vicksburg by preparing to attack the Federal outpost at Milliken’s Bend, on the west bank of the Mississippi River.

Breaking Up Mischief in Its Incipiency

Jeb Stuart stages another extravagant Confederate cavalry review while Federal horsemen close in on him.

The Battle of Brandy Station

Jeb Stuart’s Confederate cavalry narrowly escapes defeat in the largest cavalry battle ever waged in North America.

Fret Him and Fret Him

As Robert E. Lee’s Confederates move north, Lee offers President Jefferson Davis political advice. As Joseph Hooker’s Federals try to pursue Lee, President Abraham Lincoln offers Hooker military advice.

The Vallandigham Affair Continues

Exiled Copperhead Clement L. Vallandigham is nominated to run for governor of Ohio, and President Abraham Lincoln issues a response to those protesting his banishment of Vallandigham out of the U.S.

We Should Not Yield a Foot

Federals in the Shenandoah Valley are put on high alert as the vanguard of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia moves westward through the Blue Ridge.

Vicksburg: Federal Hardships Increase

The soldiers and civilians besieged in Vicksburg endure severe hardships as the Confederate high command argue how best to save the army.

Harpers Ferry All Over Again

Part of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia drives toward Winchester on its way to the Potomac River and the North.

The Second Battle of Port Hudson

Nathaniel P. Banks launches another doomed assault on the Confederate defenses at Port Hudson, Louisiana, but the Federal siege continues.

The Second Battle of Winchester

The vanguard of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia attacks the supposedly impregnable Federal defenses at Winchester, precipitating a Federal disaster.

Hooker Probes Near the Shenandoah

Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia continues crossing the Potomac River, as Joseph Hooker is frustrated with his superiors in Washington and his Federal cavalry try uncovering Lee’s plan.

New Life Into All Hands

The C.S.S. Atlanta attempts to break the Federal blockade on the Georgia coast but is met by formidable Federal ironclads in response.

Vicksburg: Grant Removes McClernand

Ulysses S. Grant continues his relentless siege, and he also finds time to finally remove a troublesome commander.

Confederates Invade Pennsylvania

Citizens panic as Confederates start entering Pennsylvania. Robert E. Lee issues stern orders against looting civilian property, Joseph Hooker develops a secret strategy for dealing with the Confederate invasion, and the Confederate cavalry prepares to ride around the Federal army.

The Hug He Will Never Recover From

The siege of Port Hudson continues to demoralize the Confederate defenders, while another Confederate army tries to break the siege by attacking Federal positions near New Orleans.

The Tullahoma Campaign Begins

William S. Rosecrans finally begins moving his Federal Army of the Cumberland to oppose Braxton Bragg’s Confederate army at Tullahoma, Tennessee.

Jeb Stuart’s Fateful Raid

Jeb Stuart and his Confederate cavalry plan to atone for their near-defeat at Brandy Station, but they disrupt Robert E. Lee’s northern invasion in the process.

Federals are Poised to Cross the Potomac

Joseph Hooker pinpoints the location of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia as it moves through Maryland and Pennsylvania, and issues orders for his Federal army to cross the Potomac in pursuit.

The War Leaves Virginia

The last troops of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia cross the Potomac River into Maryland, while the first troops of the Federal Army of the Potomac begin crossing as well.

Panic Spreads in Pennsylvania

Most of the Federal Army of the Potomac enters Maryland, Joseph Hooker asks to take command of the garrisons in the Shenandoah, and the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania spreads panic.

Bait for the Rebels

Robert E. Lee warns his Confederates against pillaging in Pennsylvania, while Joseph Hooker makes another request to take over the Federal garrisons in the Shenandoah Valley.

Meade Replaces Hooker

President Abraham Lincoln accepts Joseph Hooker’s resignation as Army of the Potomac commander, daringly replacing an army commander during an enemy invasion.

Ripe for Mutiny

Ulysses S. Grant’s Federals tighten their grip around Vicksburg as the starving Confederates under constant bombardment look for either relief or surrender.

A Battle Will Decide the Fate of Our Country

Robert E. Lee is shocked to learn that the Federal army has crossed the Potomac River and orders his Confederate army to concentrate. Officials at Washington cautiously wait to see if George G. Meade is up to the task of commanding the Federal army at this crucial time.

Armies Converge in Pennsylvania

Cavalry from the Federal Army of the Potomac arrive at Gettysburg from the south, just as infantry from the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia leave to the north.

Last Updated: 7/2/2023

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