July 1862

The battles on the Virginia Peninsula were followed by several Federal command changes. In the North, Republicans in Congress took advantage of the lack of southern opposition by enacting much of their agenda. In the South, Confederate officials continued seeking foreign recognition and aid. With Federal forces stalled in Virginia and the West, President Abraham Lincoln suggested a bold new strategy.

The Seven Days’ Battles: Malvern Hill

The last of a week-long series of battles on the Virginia Peninsula takes place at Malvern Hill, near the James River.

The Internal Revenue Act

A new U.S. law is enacted in the continuing effort to raise money for the war. This builds upon the notion of income taxation.

The Pacific Railway Act

A new law is enacted that lays the foundation for what would eventually become the first transcontinental railroad.

I Expect to Maintain This Contest

Abraham Lincoln issues a call for more volunteers while sidestepping the defeats on the Virginia Peninsula that prompted the call.

The Morrill Land Grant College Act

A new law is enacted in which the U.S. government would grant land to states and territories to establish institutions of higher learning.

The Seven Days’ Battles: Aftermath

Federals and Confederates on the Virginia Peninsula regroup as Robert E. Lee probes the Federal defenses and George B. McClellan makes yet another plea for more men.

Morgan is Devastating with Fire and Sword

John Hunt Morgan leads 867 Confederate partisans on a raid into Kentucky to harass the supply line for the Federal Army of the Ohio.

Standoff on the Peninsula

Abraham Lincoln works to funnel more reinforcements to George B. McClellan’s Federal army on the Virginia Peninsula, and Robert E. Lee decides that the Federal positions are too strong to attack.

The Harrison’s Bar Letter

As the Federal army settles into defenses on the Virginia Peninsula, George B. McClellan takes the time to dictate to Abraham Lincoln on how the war should be waged.

Lincoln Visits the Virginia Peninsula

Abraham Lincoln visits the Army of the Potomac on the Virginia Peninsula, receives unwanted political advice, and contemplates a major military change.

Time to Strike at Middle Tennessee

As Federal forces close in on Chattanooga, Edmund Kirby Smith reveals a daring plan for a Confederate counteroffensive.

Halleck Becomes General-in-Chief

Less than 48 hours after leaving the Peninsula, Abraham Lincoln names Henry W. Halleck to become commander of all U.S. armies.

A Radical Change in Our Social System

Abraham Lincoln holds a conference with U.S. congressmen from the loyal slaveholding states to persuade them to adopt gradual, compensated emancipation.

I Will Have Every Man Put to the Sword

Nathan Bedford Forrest’s Confederate horsemen capture the key city of Murfreesboro as part of a raid to disrupt Federal communication and supply lines in Middle Tennessee.

The Army of Virginia: Pope’s Bull

John Pope issues a pretentious address to his new army before embarking on his first campaign in northern Virginia.

Damnable Neglect or Worse

A new Confederate ironclad blasts through Federal ships and threatens to turn the tide of the war on the Mississippi River.

Reorganizing the Department of the Mississippi

As Henry W. Halleck prepares to go to Washington to become general-in-chief, he reorganizes the armies within his Department of the Mississippi.

Tossing Aside the Kid Glove Warfare

The lack of southern opposition in the U.S. Congress enables the Republican majority to enact most of its party agenda.

Morgan’s Kentucky Raid Ends

John Hunt Morgan’s Confederate horsemen attack a Federal garrison at a key railroad town before ending their Kentucky incursion.

The Newburgh Raid

Adam R. Johnson leads 35 Confederate partisans out of Henderson, Kentucky, to raid the Federal arsenal across the Ohio River at Newburgh, Indiana.

Changing the Character of the War

John Pope, commanding the Federal Army of Virginia, issues orders that spark fury throughout the South and threaten to change the character of the war.

The Northern Virginia Campaign Begins

Federal cavalry discovers that Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s Confederates have reached the important railroad town of Gordonsville ahead of them.

Change Tactics or Lose the Game

With the northern war effort in decline, Abraham Lincoln begins to reconsider whether or not he should free slaves by presidential decree.

Moving Toward Emancipation

Abraham Lincoln surprises his cabinet by reading a draft of an executive order freeing all slaves in Confederate states.

The Prisoner Exchange Cartel

With the number of prisoners of war quickly growing, Federals and Confederates agree to a tentative system of prisoner exchange.

Confederates on the Move in the West

Braxton Bragg mobilizes his Confederate army to move from Tupelo to Chattanooga and ultimately join forces with Confederates in east Tennessee.

McClellan Agrees to Advance Once More

Henry W. Halleck gets George B. McClellan to agree to move his Federal Army of the Potomac on the Virginia Peninsula, but McClellan soon changes his mind.

The Second Confiscation Act

Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation warning southerners to stop aiding and abetting the Confederacy or risk having their property, including slaves, confiscated by military force.

The Baton Rouge Campaign

Former U.S. vice president John C. Breckinridge leads a Confederate force in a campaign to regain the Louisiana capital of Baton Rouge.

The Current is Against Us and Strong

Confederates try to curry favor with France, and Great Britain suffers a severe economic downturn due to the lack of southern cotton.

Last Updated: 7/28/2022

Leave a Reply