Professor Thaddeus Lowe ascends in a balloon to demonstrate the usefulness of aerial military reconnaissance, and J.D. Mills demonstrates a forerunner to the modern machine gun.
Confederate and U.S. officials work to develop strategies to wage war against each other on the waters.
Pro-Confederate Kentuckians boycott an election that results in Unionist candidates winning seats in the U.S. House of Representatives.
George B. McClellan comes to take personal command of Federals in western Virginia as Confederates try to strengthen their defenses.
Western Virginians gather at a convention and declare themselves to be the lawful, reorganized government of the state of Virginia.
Federal forces advance in northern Missouri and win a minor victory at Boonville. But the secessionists are not done fighting yet.