Category Archives: Texas

The Confederate New Mexico Campaign Ends

May 14, 1862 – Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley’s dream of making the New Mexico Territory part of the Confederacy ended as the remnants of his broken army finally made it back to El Paso and his detachment abandoned Tucson.

Brig Gen H.H. Sibley | Image Credit:

Brig Gen H.H. Sibley | Image Credit:

The Confederate detachment of Sibley’s army under Captain Sherod Hunter had held Tucson and operated in western New Mexico (present-day Arizona) since February. During that time, Federal forces had been mobilized from various forts in California and concentrated at Fort Yuma to drive Hunter out. In early May, Hunter, having less than 100 men, evacuated Tucson upon learning that Colonel James H. Carleton’s “California column” of about 1,800 troops were approaching.

A couple weeks later, a Federal detachment under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph West entered Tucson and found that both the Confederates and their secessionist allies were gone. The Federals quickly prepared to continue pushing east, reopening the overland mail route all the way to Mesilla and controlling the territory once more.

Meanwhile, the survivors of Sibley’s Army of New Mexico straggled into El Paso. Since their victory at Glorieta, the Confederates had endured terrible hardships due to lack of food and water, having retreated hundreds of miles through the unforgiving desert while being pursued by Brigadier General Edward R.S. Canby’s Federals. Sibley reported:

“Except for its geographical position, the Territory of New Mexico is not worth a quarter of the blood and treasure expended in its conquest. As a field for military operations it possesses not a single element, except in the multiplicity of its defensible positions. The indispensible element, food, cannot be relied on. I cannot speak encouragingly for the future, my troops having manifested a dogged, irreconcilable detestation of the country and the people.”

Sibley’s remaining troops assembled on the parade ground at Fort Bliss, Texas, on May 14. Of the 3,700 men who had begun the New Mexico campaign, less than 2,000 remained. Sibley thanked the troops for their sacrifice during “this more than difficult campaign,” then continued his withdrawal to San Antonio. This ended Confederate aspirations to create a Territory of Arizona and effectively ended the war in the Southwest.


References (20 May 1862); Davis, William C., Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (New York: Harper & Row, 1986, Patricia L. Faust ed.), p. 529; Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fort Sumter to Perryville (New York: Vintage Books, 1958), p. 304-05; Fredriksen, John C., Civil War Almanac (New York: Checkmark Books, 2007), p. 146-47, 155; Long, E.B. with Long, Barbara, The Civil War Day by Day (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1971), p. 207, 214; Stanchak, John E., Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (New York: Harper & Row, 1986, Patricia L. Faust ed.), p. 687

The Texas Secession: Sam Houston Ousted

March 18, 1861 – Delegates to the Texas State Convention removed Governor Sam Houston from office for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy.

Texas Governor Sam Houston | Image Credit:

Texas Governor Sam Houston | Image Credit:

On March 2, the Confederate Congress approved a measure admitting Texas into the Confederacy. However Texas Governor Sam Houston defied the state legislature by refusing to recognize the Confederacy’s legitimacy. As secessionists worked to remove Houston from office, the governor asserted: “I love Texas too well to bring civil strife and bloodshed upon her. To avert this calamity, I shall make no endeavor to maintain my authority as Chief Executive of this State, except by the peaceful exercise of my functions…”

Meanwhile, Texas officials continued seizing Federal property in the state throughout the month, including:

  • The Federal revenue cutter Henry Dodge at Galveston
  • Ringgold Barracks
  • Camps Verde, Wood, and Hudson
  • Forts McIntosh, Clark, Inge, Lancaster, Brown, Duncan, Chadbourne, Mason, and Bliss

Command changes also took place for both Federals and Confederates. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner of the 1st Cavalry was promoted to brigadier general to replace General David Twiggs in command of Federal forces in Texas. Twiggs had been dismissed from the U.S. army on 1 March for surrendering Federal forts to Texans. Colonel Earl Van Dorn arrived in Texas on the 26th to lead Confederate forces.

In mid-March, Governor Houston staged a dramatic protest at the state capitol in Austin. When called upon to swear loyalty to Confederacy as required by all Texas public officials, Houston ignored it. His name was called twice more and he ignored it twice more, instead whittling throughout the proceedings. Houston issued a statement:

“Fellow-Citizens, in the name of your rights and liberties, which I believe have been trampled upon, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of the nationality of Texas, which has been betrayed by the Convention, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of the Constitution of Texas, I refuse to take this oath. In the name of my own conscience and manhood, which this Convention would degrade by dragging me before it, to pander to the malice of my enemies, I refuse to take this oath. I deny the power of this Convention to speak for Texas… I protest… against all the acts and doings of this convention and I declare them null and void.”

The Texas Convention delegates accepted Houston’s resignation on the 18th, and he was replaced by Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. Houston retired to his home at Huntsville, explaining that he did not believe secession necessarily meant mandatory loyalty to a new nation. Houston said, “You may, after the sacrifice of countless millions of treasures and hundreds of thousands of precious lives, as a bare possibility, win Southern independence… but I doubt it.”

The Lincoln administration offered to provide Houston with 50,000 troops to help him regain his governorship and keep Texas in the Union by military force. Houston responded to this offer on March 29: “Allow me to most respectfully decline any such assistance of the United States Government.” Thus ended the career of one of the most prominent statesmen in Texas history.



  • Fredriksen, John C., Civil War Almanac (New York: Checkmark Books, 2007), p. 18-19
  • Freeman, Douglas Southall, Lee (Scribner, Kindle Edition, 2008), Loc 2202
  • Long, E.B. with Long, Barbara, The Civil War Day by Day (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1971), p. 44, 48-52
  • Stanchak, John E., Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (New York: Harper & Row, 1986, Patricia L. Faust ed.), p. 372
  • Ward, Geoffrey C., Burns, Ric, Burns, Ken, The Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 27
  • Wikipedia: Sam Houston; Timeline of Events Leading to the American Civil War

The Texas Secession

February 1, 1861 – Delegates to the Texas State Convention at Austin voted 166 to 7 to secede from the United States.

Texas State Flag | Image Credit:

Texas State Flag | Image Credit:

Texas became the seventh state to leave the Union. The attorney general “led a company of ladies down the aisle,” and “they unfurled a Lone Star flag.” In accordance with legislative requirements, a popular election was scheduled for February 23. Governor Sam Houston’s vocal opposition to secession alienated him from many formerly loyal Texans.

Ten days later, convention delegates approved the forming a southern Confederacy and elected seven representatives to the new Confederate Congress. The strong movement toward the Confederacy prompted Brevet Major General David E. Twiggs, commanding the Federal Department of Texas, to comply with demands from state civil commissioners to surrender all Federal forts and property to the state. Some 1,000 militia under Colonel Ben McCulloch seized the Federal arsenal at San Antonio.

Twiggs, one of the top four ranking officers in the U.S. Army, explained that he surrendered due to a threat of attack, as state troops had surrounded the 160-man garrison holding San Antonio. But then Twiggs also said, “If an old woman with a broomstick should come with full authority from the state of Texas to demand the public property, I would give it up to her.”

Twiggs had asked his superior, Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, to be relieved so he could join his home state of Georgia in seceding. Federal officials quickly accused Twiggs of treason, and he was dishonorably discharged from the service. Twiggs angrily wrote to President James Buchanan “for the sole purpose of a personal interview,” intimating a challenge to a duel. Twiggs’s capitulation spread fear among Federal officials that other southern commanders could give up other Federal posts just as easily.

On the 19th, Colonel Carlos A. Waite replaced Twiggs as commander of the Department of Texas at Camp Verde, even though Twiggs had already surrendered the Federal posts in the state. Federal forces soon abandoned Camp Cooper and Camp Colorado, and Texas militia took Federal property at Brazos Santiago.

Voters upheld the Texas Convention’s decision to secede. In the popular election mandated by the convention, Texans approved secession by a 74-percent majority—34,794 to 11,235.



  • Davis, William C., Brother Against Brother: The War Begins (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983), p. 129-31
  • Fredriksen, John C., Civil War Almanac (New York: Checkmark Books, 2007), p. 14
  • Josephy, Jr., Alvin M., War on the Frontier: The Trans-Mississippi West (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983), p. 17-19
  • Linedecker, Clifford L. (ed.), Civil War A to Z (Ballantine Books, 2002), p. 253-54
  • Long, E.B. with Long, Barbara, The Civil War Day by Day (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1971), p. 31, 35-36, 38-42
  • Pollard, Edward A., Southern History of the War (New York: The Fairfax Press, 1990), p. 46
  • White, Howard Ray, Bloodstains, An Epic History of the Politics that Produced and Sustained the American Civil War and the Political Reconstruction that Followed (Southernbooks, Kindle Edition, 2012), Q161