Ambrose E. Burnside follows up his arrest of Clement Vallandigham by ordering the closure of the anti-war Chicago Times.
Former Ohio Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham is arrested and tried by a military court for violating an order prohibiting citizens from speaking out against the war effort. This action inadvertently causes mass protest in the North for violating freedom of speech.
Calls for peace grow louder in the North, especially among Democrats known as “Copperheads.” The military responds with draconian orders against civilian protest.
George B. McClellan orders Federal troops across the Ohio River to begin anticipated incursion into predominantly Unionist western Virginia.
Confederates keep a tenuous hold on hostile northwestern Virginia while Unionists consider seceding from the rest of the state.