Tag Archives: South Carolina

The 1860 Elections: The Early Returns

October 1860 – Republicans won majorities in the state elections of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. This proved that the Republican campaign strategy worked:

  • Disavowing immigration restrictions boosted the foreign-born vote
  • Nominating Abraham Lincoln for president brought most Know-Nothings into the party’s fold
  • Endorsing the Wide-Awake clubs as they staged meetings, military drills, processions, and parades won support from younger voters, despite Lincoln’s lack of personal interest in the group

Democratic presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas learned of the Republican victories while campaigning in Iowa. Knowing what these victories meant in the overall picture, he told his secretary, “Mr. Lincoln is the next President. We must try to save the Union. I will go south.” Douglas made a futile appeal to southerners to remain in the Union, even if Lincoln became the nation’s first anti-southern president.

Candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas | Image Credit: TheModerateVoice.comLincoln, following the tradition in which presidential candidates did not campaign for themselves, remained quiet as the general election approached. He rejected requests to issue a statement to placate the South, asking, “What is it I could say which would quiet alarm? Is it that no interference by the government, with slaves or slavery within the states, is intended? I have said this so often already, that a repetition of it is but mockery, bearing an appearance of weakness.”

Lincoln expressed willingness to repeat his common refrain “if there were no danger of encouraging bold bad men… who are eager for something new upon which to base new misrepresentations—men who would like to frighten me, or, at least, to fix upon me the character of timidity and cowardice. They would seize upon almost any letter I could write, as being an ‘awful coming down.’”

While southerners intensified threats of leaving the Union if Lincoln won the election, many northerners expressed a wish that the South would carry out its threat. The Chicago Tribune, targeting South Carolina as the leader in secessionist agitation, opined that if that state would leave the Union, “let her go, and like a limb lopped from a healthy trunk, wilt and rot where she falls.”

—–

Sources

  • Donald, David Herbert, Lincoln (Simon & Schuster, Kindle Edition, 2011), Loc 5329
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative – Fort Sumter to Perryville, p. 34
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States Book 6, Oxford University Press, Kindle Edition, 1988), p. 231, 251
Advertisements

Jefferson Davis on Tour

October 2, 1864 – Confederate President Jefferson Davis continued his southern tour this month, urging citizens to oppose the Federal invasion of Georgia.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis | Image Credit: Wikispaces.com

Confederate President Jefferson Davis | Image Credit: Wikispaces.com

Davis arrived at Augusta, Georgia on the 2nd, where he met with General P.G.T. Beauregard, hero of Fort Sumter and Bull Run. Beauregard expected to replace General John Bell Hood as commander of the Army of Tennessee. However, Davis offered him command of a new Military Division of the West, which would oversee both Hood’s department and General Richard Taylor’s Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.

Beauregard would act as an advisor, directly controlling troop movements only “whenever in your judgment the interests of your command render it expedient.” This appointment gave Davis a more experienced commander to supervise Hood and kept General Joseph E. Johnston, a Davis antagonist, inactive.

The next day, Davis addressed a patriotic Augusta crowd accompanied by Beauregard and General William Hardee. Davis said, “Never before was I so confident that energy, harmony, and determination would rid the country of its enemy and give to the women of the land that peace their good deeds have so well deserved.” He implored Georgians to rise and defeat the advance of Major General William T. Sherman’s Federals, which would embolden northerners seeking peaceful separation with the South:

“Now we have arms for all, and are begging men to bear them. This city of Augusta alone produces more powder than the army can burn… Every man able to bear arms must go to the front… We are fighting for existence, and of fighting alone can independence be gained… We must beat Sherman; we must march into Tennessee. There we will draw from 20,000 to 30,000 to our standard, and, so strengthened, we must push the enemy back to the banks of the Ohio and thus give the peace party of the North an accretion no puny editorial can give.”

Beauregard drew cheers when he said that, having fired the war’s first shot at Fort Sumter, he “hoped to live to fire the last.” The crowd also applauded Hardee for saying that Hood recently vowed “to lay his claws upon the state road in rear of Sherman, and, having once fixed them there, it was not his intention to let them loose their hold.”

President Davis took a night train to Columbia, South Carolina and arrived there at dawn on the 4th. Addressing a crowd later that day, he expressed optimism: “(Hood’s) eye is now fixed upon a point far beyond that where he was assailed by the enemy… And if but a half, nay, one-fourth, of the men to whom the service has a right, will give him their strength, I see no chance for Sherman to escape from a defeat or a disgraceful retreat.”

Davis urged more sacrifice to form a united resistance and vowed that Sherman would be defeated:

“South Carolina has struggled nobly in war, and suffered many sacrifices. But if there be any who feel that our cause is in danger, that final success may not crown our efforts, that we are not stronger today than when we began this struggle, that we are not able to continue the supplies to our armies and our people, let all such read a contradiction in the smiling face of our land and in the teeming evidences of plenty which everywhere greet the eye… I believe it is in the power of the men of the Confederacy to plant our banners on the banks of the Ohio, where we shall say to the Yankee: ‘Be quiet, or we shall teach you another lesson’… There is but one means by which you can gain independence and an honorable peace, and that is by uniting… Is this a time to ask what the law demands of you, to ask if the magistrate will take you out of the enrolling office by a writ of habeas corpus? Rather is it time for every man capable of bearing arms to say, ‘My country needs my services, and my country shall have them!’”

Davis began his return trip to Richmond two days later, arriving at the Confederate capital on the 15th. That day, Davis detached General Braxton Bragg as his chief of staff and sent him to command the defenses at Wilmington, North Carolina, which was the Confederacy’s last major seaport.

Sources

  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War: A Narrative: Volume 3: Red River to Appomattox (Vintage Civil War Library, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, Kindle Edition, 2011), Kindle Locations 12767-87, 12788-808
  • Long, E.B. with Long, Barbara, The Civil War Day by Day (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1971), p. 584, 578-80
  • White, Howard Ray, Bloodstains, An Epic History of the Politics that Produced and Sustained the American Civil War and the Political Reconstruction that Followed (Southernbooks, Kindle Edition, 2012), Loc 55064-69