The U.S. Congress defiantly resolves that the defeat at Bull Run will not stop the Federals from achieving ultimate victory.
The U.S. Congress begins debating on how to pay for the war, while the anti-war minority makes its voice heard.
The 37th Congress of the United States assembles in special session as called by President Abraham Lincoln.
Several proposals to keep the Union intact are proposed, but none seem to be popular enough for both North and South to support.
Senator John J. Crittenden introduces a complex program designed to end the sectional crisis and preserve the Union.
The last annual message of James Buchanan’s presidency acknowledges that North and South are “now arrayed against each other.” He offers suggestions on how to resolve the crisis, but he leaves both sections dissatisfied.