If Vigorously Pressed He Must Suffer

General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia continued retreating after its defeat at Gettysburg, hoping to get back to Virginia before the Federal Army of the Potomac attacked them. Major-General Jeb Stuart, commanding the Confederate cavalry, split his force between escorting the wagon train and fending off Federal advances. The cavalry covering the wagon train, led by Brigadier-General John D. Imboden, struggled to get the wagons across the Potomac River. The bridges had been destroyed, but he found flat boats that could carry 30 wounded men at a time to the other side. Each trip took 15 minutes, and 10,000 wounded men needed to be sent across the river.

Meanwhile, the Confederate infantry continued marching toward the Potomac, with Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s First Corps reaching Williamsport on July 7. Lee hoped to get his army across by the end of the day, but he soon learned what Imboden already knew–there were no suitable crossings now that the river had swelled so high from the rain. Engineers and troops began tearing apart local warehouses, barns, and other buildings to build a makeshift pontoon bridge.

Confederate Gen R.E. Lee | Image Credit: Wikispaces.com

Still at Hagerstown, Lee reported to President Jefferson Davis, “I determined to withdraw to the west side of the mountains… to protect our trains with the sick and wounded, which had been sent back to Williamsport, and which were threatened by the enemy’s cavalry.”

Lee dispatched his engineers and Colonel E. Porter Alexander, one of the army’s top artillerists, to survey the ground around the river in case the Confederates had to turn and defend against an attack. Alexander later wrote, “There was no very well defined and naturally strong line, and we had to pick and choose, and string together in some places by make-shifts and some little work.” The exhausted Confederates arriving at Williamsport soon took up defensive positions and awaited a Federal advance.

Major-General George G. Meade, commanding the Federal army, had an excellent chance of destroying Lee if he hurried from Gettysburg and attacked before the Confederates could cross the Potomac. But Meade did not. The Federals moved slowly out of their defenses south of Gettysburg, with advance elements entering Maryland and reaching Emmitsburg on the 7th. Meade took up headquarters at the United States Hotel in Frederick. Except for Brigadier-General John Buford’s Federal cavalry division, the Federals were on the east side of South Mountain, while Buford and Lee’s army were on the west.

At Washington, more celebrations erupted when the news arrived of the victory at Vicksburg. President Abraham Lincoln ecstatically wrote General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck, “Now, if General Meade can complete his work, so gloriously prosecuted thus far, by the literal or substantial destruction of Lee’s army, the rebellion will be over.” Halleck informed Meade, “It gives me pleasure to inform you that you have been appointed a brigadier general in the Regular Army, to rank from July 3, the date of your brilliant victory.”

Halleck followed up with another message: “Push forward and fight Lee before he can cross the Potomac.” And then a third: “You have given the enemy a stunning blow at Gettysburg. Follow it up, and give him another before he can reach the Potomac… There is strong evidence that he is short of artillery ammunition, and if vigorously pressed he must suffer.”

Maj-Gen G.G. Meade | Image Credit: Wikipedia

Meade responded with a list of difficulties he faced in trying to pursue Lee. Lincoln shared this message at a cabinet meeting on the 7th. According to Navy Secretary Gideon Welles, Lincoln said, “with a countenance indicating sadness and despondency, that Meade still lingered at Gettysburg, when he should have been at Hagerstown or near the Potomac, to cut off the retreating army of Lee… he feared the old idea of driving the Rebels out of Pennsylvania and Maryland, instead of capturing them, was still prevalent among the officers.”

Lincoln explained that he had tried to impart the urgency needed to Halleck, but when Halleck seemed reluctant to agree, Lincoln said, “I drop the subject… It being strictly a military question, it is proper I should defer to Halleck, whom I have called here to counsel, advise, and direct in these matters, where he is an expert.” Welles disagreed. He wrote that the president’s “convictions and conclusions are infinitely superior to Halleck’s… I question whether he should be considered an expert. I look upon Halleck as a pretty good scholarly critic of other men’s deeds and acts, but as incapable of originating or directing military operations.”

Despite Lincoln’s melancholy at Meade’s reluctance to pursue Lee and Halleck’s reluctance to push Meade, he responded to a group of serenaders who visited the White House that night and called for him to speak. Lincoln spoke from a balcony, “How long ago is it?–80 odd years–since on the Fourth of July for the first time in the history of the world a nation by its representatives, assembled and declared as a self-evident truth that ‘all men are created equal.’”

Lincoln declared that the “gigantic Rebellion” was making “an effort to overthrow the principle that all men were created equal,” and now it seemed finally on the brink of defeat. He indirectly referred to Meade’s slow pursuit of Lee: “These are trying occasions, not only in success, but also for want of success.” Lincoln ended by saying, “Gentlemen, this is a glorious theme, and the occasion for a speech, but I am not prepared to make one worthy of the occasion.”

Meanwhile, news of the Confederate defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg had not yet reached the South. On the 7th, an article appeared in the Richmond Examiner stating in part:

“From the very beginning the true policy of the South has been invasion. The present movement of General Lee… will be of infinite value as disclosing the… easy susceptibility of the North to invasion… Not even the Chinese are less prepared by previous habits of life and education for martial resistance than the Yankees… We can… carry our armies far into the enemy’s country, exacting peace by blows leveled at his vitals.”

The next day, the Charleston Mercury reported that “A brilliant and crushing victory has been achieved” at Gettysburg. On the 10th, the Examiner reported that Lee’s army had taken 30,000 prisoners and was advancing on Baltimore.

It was not until that day that the Davis administration received official word that Vicksburg had fallen. They also received a report from Lee stating that his army was unable to cross the Potomac, and from General P.G.T. Beauregard reporting that the Federals had gained a foothold on Morris Island below Charleston Harbor. The end of the Confederacy never seemed so near before.


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